Rise of Nationalism in Europe
In 19 Th Century Europe was divided among monarchical absolutist states with diverse people different speaking languages and belonging to several racial and ethics groups. Between different kinds of groups there was no collective identity received among them. In 19 Th century, the emergence of nationalism rise as a new force which come along with some sweeping changes in political and mental world of Europe.The concept of a modern state with defined territory, with citizens and rulers sharing common bonds and history, which became popular. This popularity was possible only through a process of struggle, and efforts done by leaders and common people.
Making of Nationalism in Europe
European countries rulers in 19th century ruled in region of (Hasburg dynasty ruled over regions of Austria, Italian provinces of Lombardy and Venetia, speaking Sudetenland and Polish Speaking Galicia). In Hungary most of the people speak Magyar language . Similarly Italy, Germany and Switzerland were divided into various kingdoms where socially and politically landed class known as a dominant class. French language speaks by Elite class which was often connected by marriage. Mostly majority of population made up of peasantry. Europe western and central part were undergoing economic and social changes. It resulted in the emergence of working class population and commercial class, whose existence depended on the production in the market .In 18 th and 19 th centuries new force comes with formation of new social groups; a new middle class which consisted professionals, businessmen and industrialists. It also resulted of working class population and commercial class, whose existence depended on the production in the market. Though the French Revolution released the spirit of liberalism and nationalism conservative powers of Europe made a bid to challenge these forces. Fears of repression forced the liberal minded people to go underground and organize revolutionary activities to overthrow conservative regime. By the end of 19 Th century republics were set up in France and many other countries .All German and Italian states were unified to inform independent states of Italy and Germany. When nationalism was united with imperialism it led to the First World War in 1914. Anti-imperialist movements opposed the domination of imperials. These movements’ were nationalistic in nature. The idea of collective unity and the idea that the societies should be organized into nation states came to be accepted as natural and universal.